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N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Absorption: This is the movement of food into the bloodstream.
Alkaline pyrogallol: This is used to absorb oxygen.
Amylase: This is an enzyme. It is found in saliva. It breaks starch
down into maltose.
Antagonistic muscles: A pair of skeletal muscles that work together.
When one contracts the other relaxes, e.g. the biceps and triceps.
Asexual reproduction: Reproduction that does not involve gametes.
Assimilation: This is the using of the food by the cells of the body after absorption.
Benedict's solution: This is used to test for a reducing sugar
e.g. glucose. If a reducing sugar is present it turns brick red after
being heated in a boiling water bath.
Breathing: This is a physical process of taking in oxygen and breathing back out carbon dioxide.
Carnivore: An animal that only eats other animals.
Carpel: The female part of the flowering plant. It is made up
of the stigma, style and ovary.
Catalyst: A chemical that speeds up or slows down chemical reactions.
Cell wall: Structure found outside the cell membrane in plant
cells. Cell walls are absent in animal cells.
Chlorophyll: The green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant
cells. It is used in photosynthesis.
Competition: This is the struggle between organisms to gain a
sufficient supply of a scarce resource e.g. Grasses and dandelions compete
Conservation: This is the wise use of the environment:
Digestion: This is the breaking down of food into small soluble
Dispersal: The dispersal of seeds is the scattering of seeds. The advantage of dispersal is that it helps reduce competition.
Egestion: The getting rid of unused, undigested and unabsorbed
Endocrine glands: A ductless gland that releases hormones directly
into the bloodstream, e.g. the pancreas (it releases insulin which controls
blood sugar level).
Excretion: This is the getting rid of waste products from chemical reactions in the body.
Food chain: A food chain is a feeding relationship between organisms
through which energy is transferred.
Food web: A food web is a number of interconnected food chains.
Gamete: A gamete is a sex cell. The male gamete is the sperm and
the female gamete is the egg.
Genetics: This is the study of inheritance.
Geotropism: The growth of a plant in response to gravity.
Germination: Germination is the growth of a seed into a new plant. The requirements are warmth, moisture and oxygen.
Habitat: The place where a plant or animal lives is called its
Haemoglobin: The red pigment in red blood corpuscles. It is involved
in transporting oxygen.
Herbivore: An animal that eats only plants.
Hormone: A chemical substance that is released by an endocrine
Humus: The organic material of soil. It is formed from decomposing plants and animals.
Implantation: This is when the embryo attaches itself to the womb
Ingestion: This is the taking in of food into the mouth.
Iodine solution: This is used to test for starch. If starch is
present it turns blue-black.
Iris: The iris controls the amount of light entering the eye.
Joint: This is where two or more bones meet.
Leaching: The washing of minerals out of the soil.
Ligaments: Fibres that connect bone to bone.
Lime water: This is used to test for the presence of carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide is present the lime water turns milky.
Motor nerve: A nerve that carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord.
Nutrient agar: This is used as a food supply for bacteria and fungi in the lab.
Omnivore: An animal that eats plants and animals.
Organ: A group of tissues working together e.g. heart.
Ovulation: This is the release of an egg from an ovary.
Phloem: This is a plant transport tissue. It transports food from
where it is made to other parts of the plant.
Photosynthesis: This is the process in which green plants make
Phototropism: The growth of a plant in response to light.
Placenta: The structure that binds the developing baby to the
wall of the womb. It allows nutrients and waste to be exchanged.
Pollination: This is the transfer of pollen from the anther of
the stamen to the stigma of the carpel.
Pollution: This is where things such as oil, sewage, slurry, sulphur
dioxide, nitrogen oxides and litter damage the environment.
Pooter: A piece of equipment used to collect small animals.
Producer: An organism that can make its own food.
Respiration: This is a chemical process where energy is released
Retina: The light sensitive layer at the back of the eye.
Sensory nerve: A nerve that carries messages to the brain and
Soda lime: This is used to absorb carbon dioxide.
Stamen: The male part of the flowering plant. It is made up of
the anther and filament.
Stomata: These are pores (openings) in the leaves of a plant,
which allows gases to diffuse.
Synovial fluid: A lubricating fluid found at a joint. It helps
System: A group of organs working together e.g. digestive system.
Tendons: Fibres that attach muscle to bone.
Tissue: A group of similar cells e.g. muscle.
Transpiration: This is the loss of water vapour from the surface
of a plant. It is highest when there is a gentle breeze, sun and low humidity.
Trophic level: The position an organism occupies in a food chain.
Tropism: A growth response to a stimulus.
Tullgren funnel: A piece of equipment used to extract small animals from leaf litter or soil.
Xylem: This is a plant transport tissue. It transports water and minerals from the roots to other parts of the plant.
Zygote: The cell, which results from the fusion of a male and